• Fuel type: The only fuel considered for deep-sea vessels which don’t contain a carbon molecule.
  • Properties: Liquefies at -33°c. At ambient pressure. Energy density c.30% of conventional marine fuel.
  • Uptake by industry: At this time, ammonia remains at a conceptual stage. First, “ammonia-ready” engines will likely be available around 2024.
  • Green credentials: Ammonia can be produced via two different carbon-neutral avenues: from natural gas with carbon capture and sequestration through electrolysis from renewable electricity. Both types have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by close to 100.
  • Negatives: Ammonia fuelled engines may require significant pilot fuel. Ammonia has the potential for emissions of N2O. The resolution of this problem is crucial for the environmental credibility of ammonia.
  • CO2 saving: Both types can potentially reduce CO2 emissions by nearly 100.
  • Safety considerations: Ammonia is highly toxic and highly corrosive. Exposure to even small quantities of ammonia can result in life-changing injuries or even death
  • Availability: Green and Blue ammonia are virtually non-existent products today. However, both fuels’ supplies will likely develop in the coming years in USGC, NW Europe, the Middle East, and Oceania within the next decade.
  • Price: Green ammonia is likely to price at a significant premium to conventional fuels for some time (c.1.5-2x).

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Weekly Spotlight on Biofuel Readiness

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